DRI, also known as sponge iron, is the product of reducing iron oxide in the form of iron ore and steel plant wastes into metallic iron, below the melting point of iron and typically in the range of 8001200C. Iron oxide is charged into shaft furnace, rotary kiln, or fluidied beds in the form of pellet, iron ore lumps, or fines. The reduction takes place using gaseous reductants COH2 which are generated through partial oxidation of coal Reaction 3.3.1, reforming of methane by CO2H2O Reactions 3.3.2 and 3.3.3, or partial combustion of natural gas Reaction 3.3.4.Get A Quote
DRI is a highly metallied iron-bearing material with some iron being present as cementite and wustite, in addition to gangue. Table 3.3.2 shows a range of compositions for DRI products based on the reductants used.
Table 3.3.2. Range of Chemical Composition for Natural Gas- and Coal-Based Produced DRI 10.
It is evident from this table that 48 of the DRI iron is nonmetallic, in the form of FeO. Carbon is also present in two forms, primarily as cementite and the remainder as elemental carbon deposited in the pores of DRI.
The principle of the water gas shift reactor or also called sponge iron process is not new see 2, 3 and the references therein. This reaction involves a red-ox reaction, in which the carbon within the carbon monoxide is oxidised and the hydrogen within the water is reduced. Due to the cyclic operation and the presence of iron oxide inside which captures and releases hydrogen, the two parts of the reaction are separated in time see Fig. 1. When a stream containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen is fed into the reactor, the iron oxide is reduced, producing carbon dioxide and water.
When the bed is sufficiently reduced, the feed is switched to steam. Then the iron is oxidied to iron oxide and pure hydrogen without carbon monoxide is produced.
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Pig iron is the product of smelting iron ore also ilmenite with a high-carbon fuel and reductant such as coke, usually with limestone as a flux. Charcoal and anthracite are also used as fuel and reductant. Pig iron is produced by smelting or iron ore in blast furnaces or by smelting ilmenite in electric furnaces.
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Sponge iron or direct reduced iron is a high quality porous solid-state metallic product that is produced from iron ore in the form of lumps, pellets or fines using a reducing gas such as natural gas or coal. It has a slightly higher iron content that makes it better suited for use in an electric arc furnace route of steel making. The gases that are produced during the production of sponge iron can be used in various applications that help offset the cost of iron production.
The reasons for the tremendous growth of the sponge iron industry world over could be attributed to the advantages of using sponge iron in electric arc furnaces, partly substituting scrap, the conventional charge to the furnaces. Further, the use of sponge iron in other steel manufacturing processes has also been well proven. The advantages Of sponge iron use in EAFs are summaried below-.
INTRODUCTIONPROPERTIES OF SPONGE IRONUSES AND APPLICATIONB.I.S. SPECIFICATIONMARKET SURVEYINDUSTRIAL METALS SPONGE IRONPRESENT MANUFACTURERSSUPPLIERS OF SPONGE IRONMANUFACTURING PROCESSREACTION MECHANISMPROCESS FLOW CHARTTYPICAL RAW MATERIAL CHARACTERISTICSPLANT LAYOUTPRINCIPLES OF PLANT LAYOUTPLANT LOCATION FACTORSEXPLANATION OF TERMS USED IN THE PROJECT REPORTSUPPLIERS OF PLANT AND MACHINERIESSUPPLIERS OF RAW MATERIALS.
1. COST OF PLANT ECONOMICS2. LAND amp BUILDING3. PLANT AND MACHINERY4. FIXED CAPITAL INVESTMENT5. RAW MATERIAL6. SALARY AND WAGES7. UTILITIES AND OVERHEADS8. TOTAL WORKING CAPITAL9. COST OF PRODUCTION10. PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS11. BREAK EVEN POINT12. RESOURCES OF FINANCE13. INTEREST CHART14. DEPRECIATION CHART15. CASH FLOW STATEMENT16. PROJECTED BALANCE SHEET.
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